Here you will find an index of the latest scientific studies on the ketogenic diet which support the therapeutic benefits of ketogenic diets, their safety long term and efficacy in treating obesity, diabetes type 2, epilepsy, lowering cholesterol and heart disease prevention among others.
New Study Favors Fat Over Carbs
"High carbohydrate intake is associated with a higher risk of mortality, and high fat intake with a lower risk, researchers report.
An international team of scientists studied diet and mortality in 135,335 people between 35 and 70 years old in 18 countries, following them for an average of more than seven years. Diet information depended on self-reports, and the scientists controlled for factors including age, sex, smoking, physical activity and body mass index. The study is in The Lancet.
Compared with people who ate the lowest 20 percent of carbohydrates, those who ate the highest 20 percent had a 28 percent increased risk of dying earlier. But high carbohydrate intake was not associated with cardiovascular death.
People with the highest 20 percent in total fat intake — an average of 35.3 percent of calories from fat — had about a 23 percent reduced risk of death compared with the lowest 20 percent (an average of 10.6 percent of calories from fat). Consuming higher saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat were all associated with lower mortality. Higher fat diets were also associated with a lower risk of stroke."
Low-fat diet could kill you, major study shows
"Low-fat diets could raise the risk of early death by almost one quarter, a major study has found.
The Lancet study of 135,000 adults found those who cut back on fats had far shorter lives than those enjoying plenty of butter, cheese and meats.
Researchers said the study was at odds with repeated health advice to cut down on fats.
But the latest research, presented at the European Society of Cardiology Congress, in Barcelona found those with low intake of saturated fat raised chances of early death by 13 per cent compared to those eating plenty.
And consuming high levels of all fats cut mortality by up to 23 per cent.
The Canadian study tracked eating patterns and death rates across 18 countries."
Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in obese patients
The weight and body mass index of the patients decreased significantly (P<0.0001). The level of total cholesterol decreased from week 1 to week 24. HDL cholesterol levels significantly increased, whereas LDL cholesterol levels significantly decreased after treatment. The level of triglycerides decreased significantly following 24 weeks of treatment. The level of blood glucose significantly decreased. The changes in the level of urea and creatinine were not statistically significant.
The present study shows the beneficial effects of a long-term ketogenic diet. It significantly reduced the body weight and body mass index of the patients. Furthermore, it decreased the level of triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and blood glucose, and increased the level of HDL cholesterol. Administering a ketogenic diet for a relatively longer period of time did not produce any significant side effects in the patients. Therefore, the present study confirms that it is safe to use a ketogenic diet for a longer period of time than previously demonstrated.
Beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects.
Dashti HM1, Mathew TC, Khadada M, Al-Mousawi M, Talib H, Asfar SK, Behbahani AI, Al-Zaid NS.
The body weight, body mass index, the level of blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea showed a significant decrease from week 1 to week 56 (P < 0.0001), whereas the level of HDL-cholesterol increased significantly (P < 0.0001). Interestingly these changes were more significant in subjects with high blood glucose level as compared to those with normal blood glucose level. The changes in the level of creatinine were not statistically significant.
This study shows the beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects following its long-term administration. Furthermore, it demonstrates that in addition to its therapeutic value, low carbohydrate diet is safe to use for a longer period of time in obese diabetic subjects.
Ketogenic Diet for Obesity: Friend or Foe?
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A period of low carbohydrate ketogenic diet may help to control hunger and may improve fat oxidative metabolism and therefore reduce body weight. Furthermore new kinds of ketogenic diets using meals that mimic carbohydrate rich foods could improve the compliance to the diet . Attention should be paid to patient’s renal function and to the transition phase from ketogenic diet to a normal diet that should be gradual and well controlled . The duration of ketogenic diet may range from a minimum (to induce the physiological ketosis) of 2–3 weeks to a maximum (following a general precautionary principle) of many months (6–12 months). Correctly understood the ketogenic diet can be a useful tool to treat obesity in the hands of the physician.
The Nervous System and Metabolic Dysregulation: Emerging Evidence Converges on Ketogenic Diet Therapy
David N. Ruskin1 and Susan A. Masino1,*
A KD offers known benefits for epilepsy, and it is apparent that the relationship between metabolism and brain function offers primary therapeutic opportunities. Basic and clinical research is acutely aware that metabolic dysfunction and comorbidities promulgate lifelong impacts on nervous system function. Particularly promising unrealized opportunities for intervention and restoration of metabolic homeostasis occur during development, after injury, and during disease progression – all windows with high levels of plasticity and remodeling. New insight into mechanisms could accelerate development of treatments.
Reversal of Diabetic Nephropathy by a Ketogenic Diet
Michal M. Poplawski,1 Jason W. Mastaitis,2 Fumiko Isoda,1 Fabrizio Grosjean,3 Feng Zheng,3 and Charles V. Mobbs1,*
Krisztian Stadler, Editor
“In contrast to previous studies in which good glucose control prevented, but did not reverse, nephropathy in a model of Type 1 diabetes , in the present studies the ketogenic diet reversed nephropathy, as reflected by albumin/creatinine ratios, after it had developed in models of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. The reversal of functional nephropathy was associated with robust normalization of expression of genes induced by oxidative and other forms of stress. In contrast to the complete reversal of nephropathy as reflected by albuminuria and gene expression, histological evidence of nephropathy was only partially reversed in the model for Type 2 diabetes (kidneys from the Akita mice were not available for histological analysis). This suggests, perhaps not surprisingly, that functional and molecular aspects of nephropathy reverse more quickly than morphological aspects of diabetic nephropathy.”
Ketogenic Diets: New Advances for Metabolism-Based Therapies
Eric H. Kossoff, MD and Adam L. Hartman, MD
Despite myriad anticonvulsants available and in various stages of development, there are thousands of children and adults with epilepsy worldwide still refractory to treatment and not candidates for epilepsy surgery. Many of these patients will now turn to dietary therapies such as the ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment.
The use of dietary therapies for children with intractable epilepsy continues to grow in popularity both clinically and from a research perspective. Recent years have seen strong interest in new indications for this treatment, new methods of initiation and maintenance, new “alternative” diets such as the modified Atkins diet, usage in adults, first-line consideration, preventing adverse effects, and basic science collaborations.
A Ketogenic Diet in Rodents Elicits Improved Mitochondrial Adaptations in Response to Resistance Exercise Training Compared to an Isocaloric Western Diet
Hayden W. Hyatt,1 Wesley C. Kephart,1 A. Maleah Holland,1 Petey Mumford,1 C. Brooks Mobley,1 Ryan P. Lowery,2Michael D. Roberts,1 Jacob M. Wilson,2 and Andreas N. Kavazis1,*
Ketogenic diets (KD) can facilitate weight loss, but their effects on skeletal muscle remain equivocal. In this experiment we investigated the effects of two diets on skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling, mitochondrial complex activity, markers of oxidative stress, and gene expression in sedentary and resistance exercised rats.
Conclusion: Our data indicate that skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling of complex II substrates is more efficient in chronically resistance trained rodents fed a KD. These findings may provide merit for further investigation, perhaps on humans.
Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets
There are new and exciting scenarios about the use of ketogenic diets, as discussed in this review, in cancer, T2D, PCOS, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Further studies are warranted to investigate more in detail the potential therapeutic mechanisms, its effectiveness and safety, and we would invite all researchers to face this challenge without prejudice.
The effects of ketogenic dieting on skeletal muscle and fat mass